Constitutional Monarchy under a Multiparty Democracy
US dollar (USD) officially used, Khmer riel (KHR) is only for small transactions.
Theravada Buddhist 96%, Christianity 2%, Muslim 2%
230V/50 Hz; European plugs are most common, British less so.
The Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា ឬ ប្រទេសកម្ពុជា) (sometimes transliterated asKampucheato more closely represent the Khmer pronunciation) is aSoutheast Asiannation bordered byVietnamto the east,Laosto the north,Thailandto the northwest, and the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest.
Cambodia has had a pretty bad run of luck for the last half-millennium or so. Ever since the fall ofAngkorin 1431, the once mightyKhmer Empirehas been plundered by its neighbors. It was colonized by the French in the 19th century, and during the 1970s suffered heavy carpet bombing by the USA. After a false dawn of independence in 1953, Cambodia promptly plunged back into the horrors of civil war in 1970 to suffer theKhmer Rougesincredibly brutal reign of terror, and only after UN-sponsored elections in 1993 did the country begin to totter back onto its feet.
Much of the population still subsists on less than the equivalent of US$1 a day, the provision of even basic services remains spotty, and political intrigue remains as complex and opaque as ever; but the security situation has improved immeasurably, and increasing numbers of visitors are rediscovering Cambodias temples and beaches.Siem Reap, the gateway to Angkor, now sports luxury hotels, chic nightspots, ATMs, and an airport fielding flights from all over the region, whileSihanoukvilleis getting good press as an up-and-coming beach destination. However, travel beyond the most popular tourist destinations is still unpredictable and risky.
It is important to remember that Cambodian history did not begin with the Khmer Rouge. Pol Pots incredibly harsh regime has garnered the most attention, but the Cambodians have enjoyed a long and often triumphant history. Anybody who witnesses the magnificent temples at Angkor can attest to the fact that the Khmer Empire was once wealthy, militarized, and a major force in the region. Its zenith came under Jayavarman VII (1181-ca. 1218), where the Empire made significant territorial gains from the Cham. The Khmer Empire stretched to encompass parts of modern day Thailand, Malaysia, Burma, Laos and Vietnam.
The period following the fall of the Khmer Empire has been described as Cambodias dark ages. Climatic factors precipitated this fall, where the Ankorian civilization harnessed Cambodias water for agriculture through elaborate systems of canals and dams. The Khmer Empire never recovered from the sacking by its neighbors based in Ayutthaya (in modern day Thailand), and Cambodia spent much of the next 400 years (until French colonization) squeezed and threatened by the rivalries of the expanding Siamese and Vietnamese Empires to the West and East. Indeed, on the eve of French colonization it was claimed that Cambodia was likely set to cease to exist as an independent kingdom entirely, with the historian John Tully claiming there can be little doubt that their [the French] intervention prevented the political disappearance of the kingdom.
The French came to dominate Cambodia as a protectorate from the 1860s, part of a wider ambition to control the area then termed Indochina (modern day Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos). The French were always more concerned with their possessions in Vietnam. Education of Cambodians was neglected for all but the established elite. It was from this elite that many Red Khmers would emerge. Japans hold on Southeast Asia during the Second World War undermined French prestige and, following the Allied victory, Prince Sihanouk soon declared independence. This was a relatively peaceful transition as France was too absorbed with its struggle in Vietnam, which it saw as more important to its conception ofLIndochine francaise.
Prince Sihanouk was the main power figure in the country after this. He was noted for making very strange movies in which he starred, wrote and directed. His rule was characterized at this point with a Buddhist revival and an emphasis on education. This, however, was a mixed blessing. He succeeded in helping create an educated elite who became increasingly disenchanted with the lack of jobs available. As the economic situation in Cambodia deteriorated, many of these young people were attracted to the Indochinese Communist Party, and later the Khmer Rouge.
As the Second Indochina War spread to Cambodias border (an important part of the Ho Chi Minh trail), the USA became increasingly concerned with events in the country. The US Air Force bombed Cambodia from 1964 to 1973. During this campaign, which was initially codenamed Operation Menu, 540,000 tonnes of bombs were dropped. Estimates of the death toll range from 40,000 to 150,000. Most of the bombing was done in support of Khmer Republic military forces fighting the Khmer Rouge and North Vietnam. In total, the US dropped 2.7 million tonnes of bombs on Cambodia from 1964 to 1973, more than the combined amount dropped by all the Allies in all theatres during World War II.
In March 1970, while overseas to visit Moscow and Beijing, Sihanouk was overthrown by Lon Nol and other generals who were looked upon favorably by the United States. Sihanouk then put his support behind the Khmer Rouge. This change influenced many to follow suit; he was, after all, considered a Boddhisatva. Meanwhile the Khmer Rouge followed the Vietnamese example and began to engender themselves to the rural poor. Between 200,000 and 300,000 people died in the civil war including the United States air campaigns.
Following a five-year struggle, Communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh in 1975 and ordered the evacuation of all cities and towns. Over one million people (and possibly many more) died from execution or enforced hardships. Those from the cities were known as new people and suffered the most at first. The rural peasantry were regarded as base people and fared better. However, the Khmer Rouges cruelty was enacted on both groups. It also depended much upon where you were from. For example, people in the East generally got it worse. It is debated whether or not the Khmer Rouge began crimes against humanity or a protracted genocide. There are claims that there were a disproportionate number of ethnic Chams killed, and the ethnically Vietnamese also suffered persecution. Nonetheless, the Khmer also suffered often indiscriminate mass killings. A 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside and ended 13 years of fighting (but the fighting would continue for some time in border areas). As a result of the devastating politics of the Khmer Rouge regime, virtually no infrastructure was left. Institutions of higher education, finance, and all forms of commerce were destroyed in 1978, so the country had to be rebuilt from scratch. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy, as did the rapid diminution of the Khmer Rouge in the mid-1990s. A coalition government, formed under pressure of the losing party following national elections in 1998, brought renewed political stability and the surrender of remaining Khmer Rouge forces. Many leaders of the formal periods kept important positions. They often adopted more liberal views as long they could extract personal profit of the situation.
The Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) put Ieng Sary, Pol Pots brother in law, on trial for crimes against humanity.
The two pillars of Cambodias newly-stable economy are textiles and tourism. The tourism industry has grown rapidly with over 1.7 million visitors arriving in 2006 and 5.0 million in 2016. The long-term development of the economy after decades of war remains a daunting challenge, as the population lacks education and productive skills, particularly in the poverty-ridden countryside, which suffers from an almost total lack of basic infrastructure. Although billions of dollars in foreign aid have been spent in Cambodia since the 1990s and a tour through Phnom Penh reveals streets of gilded mansions and luxury vehicles, more than 60% of the population still subsist on agriculture alone. Nevertheless, new construction of roads, irrigation, and farm land development are showing improvement in rural areas.
Economic development bases on the deep-water port of Sihanoukville, the enhancement of electricity supply, the modernization of the railway, and the construction and pavement of roads. Cambodia has one of the most investor-friendly environments in ASEAN: no exchange controls, no restriction on repatriation of profits, no discrimination between foreign and local investors; (…) corporate income tax is only 20% and there are tax holidays of up to nine years. Foreigners can also take out leases of land for up to 99 years.
the western mountain ranges, gulf coast beaches and offshore islands
(Angkor Archaeological ParkSiem ReapSisophonKoh KerPoipetTonle Sap LakePreah Vihear)
Angkor, the main reason most visitors come to Cambodia, plus a huge lake and the northern mountains
(Phnom PenhKampong ChamKompong ThomKrekKampong Chhnang)
remote rural areas and national parks east of the mighty Mekong
Phnom Penh the capital, just south of the geographical center of the country
Banlung far northeastern provincial capital located near some great waterfalls and national parks
Battambang the second biggest town of Cambodia
Kampot town between the capital and Sihanoukville and gateway to the Bokor National Park
Koh Kong small border crossing town near the Thai border
Kompong Thom access to less well known (and less crowded) ancient temples and other sites
Kratie relaxed river town in the north-east on the Mekong, and an excellent place to get a close look at endangered river dolphins
Siem Reap the access point forAngkor Wat
Sihanoukville seaside town in the south, also known as Kompong Som
marlin are important for both commercial and sport fishing. Marlin statue. Sihanoukville
Angkor Archaeological Park home of the imposing ruins of ancient Khmer civilization
Bokor National Park ghostly former French hill resort
Kampong Cham nice countryside village on the Mekong river and good place to meet real Cambodia
Kep a seaside area which pre-dates Sihanoukville as the main beach resort in Cambodia; slowly being re-discovered by travellers
Krek a small village on the backpacker trail between Kratie and Kampong Cham
Koh Ker more ancient ruins, north of Angkor
Otres Village a small village close to Sihanokville noted for its beach sunsets and mangrove river system.
Poipet gritty border town that most overland visitors to Angkor pass through
Preah Vihear cliff-top temple pre-dating Angkor
Tonle Sap Lake huge lake with floating villages and Southeast Asias premier bird sanctuary
Cambodian immigration authorities now fingerprint visitors on arrival and departure although this procedure doesnt seem to be applied at all entry/exit ports, as well as for children. These fingerprints may well find their way to your countrys authorities or any other agency that cares to buy them. If you object to that avoid the main entry points such as airports, (on theBangkokSiem Reaproad),Cham Yeam(nearKoh Kong), and Bavet (on thePhnom PenhHo Chi Minhroad). Smaller crossings such as Ban Pakkard/Pshar Prum (forPailin) (not the case anymore as for 01.2019) and Chong Sa-Ngam/Choam (forAnlong Veng) arent equipped with hand scanners
All visitors, except citizens ofIndonesiaMalaysiaSingaporePhilippinesLaosThailandMyanmarandVietnamneed a visa to enter Cambodia. The official price for a tourist visa (T) is USD30 or USD35 for an ordinary visa(E) also known more commonly as business visa. Staff may try to charge more at some land border crossings: hold out for the official price, particularly at major crossings, but dont be upset if you have to pay USD1-2 extra. The major difference between a tourist and an ordinary/business visa is that a tourist visa can only be extended once, for maximum 2 months of stay in Cambodia, whereas an ordinary/business visa can be extended for periods up to a year or more.
Visas can be obtained at Cambodian embassies or consulates. Visas are also available on arrival at both international airports, all six international border crossings with Thailand, some international border crossings with Vietnam, and at the main border crossing with Laos. You should have one passport photo with you to get a visa on arrival otherwise extra cost USD2.
: all are valid for one stay of up to 30 days. Those issued in advance expire 90 days after issue. InPhnom Penh(or elsewhere via agencies), tourist visas can be extended only once, allowing an additional 30 days at a cost of around USD30.
this is the best choice for those wishing to stay for over two months with multiple entries, as a business visa can be extended indefinitely (approximately USD155 per 6 month extension and USD290 per 12 month extension) and have multiple entry status when (and only when) extended. Most Phnom Penh travel agencies process the extensions. Foreign nationals of some countries from South Asia (including India) and Africa are recommended to apply for a Business visa at the Cambodian missions in their own countries as the conversion process from a Tourist visa to a Business visa within Cambodia can be expensive and annoyingly burdensome (c. USD200 for conversion from Tourist visa to Business visa and another USD285 for a one year extension). There is always some more commission involved if you are travelling from a developing country to the range of USD30-40. However, once you are in possession of a long-term Business Visa, travel into and out of the country is very convenient and painless.
To apply for a visa, you will need one or two (depending on where you apply) passport-size photo(s), a passport which is valid for at least 6 months and has at least one completely blank visa page remaining, passport photocopies when applying at some embassies/consulates (not needed if applying on arrival), and clean US$ notes with which to pay the fee (expect to pay a substantially higher price if paying in a local currency). If you dont have a passport photo at visa on arrival inPhnom Penhairport (and possibly other entry points), they will scan in the one on your passport for $3 in cash (no receipt given). Its best to carry some USD with you. There is no exchange office, but there are a couple of ATMs next to the Visa-on-arrival desks. Cambodia visa photo requirements: Must be recent (last 6 months),no smiling (the facial expression must be neutral);white background: the photo must have a completely white background; shoulders: the applicants face and shoulders must be visible; position: the position of the face and shoulders must be straight and not at an angle; color: the applicants photograph must be in full color; Eyes open: looking directly ahead. .
AtPhnom Penh airporthead to theVisa on Arrivaldesk, join the queue to the left, where your application form is reviewed (you should have been given the form on the plane). Then move to the right and wait for your name to be called. You then pay and receive your passport with the visa. Officials have difficulties pronouncing Western names so stay alert and listen out for any of your names in your passport, any of your given names or surname may be called. Once reunited with your passport, join the Immigration queue. Its exactly the same procedure at Siem Reap airport.
InPoipet, several scams abound. A favourite is the Cambodian custom officers that ask tourists to pay THB1500 (about USD45) for a visa on arrival, instead of USD30. Stand firm but stay friendly and keep smiling, they rarely insist it. Scams on the Thai side of the border, at Aranyaprathet, are even more common. Dont get on a government bus to the border, dont accept the help of someone who works for Thai Immigration at your hotel or elsewhere, and dont go to shops marked visas available here next to the border. If you dont have a passport photo immigration officers will scan the one on your passport for USD1-3 (no receipt given).
Citizens of most nations can apply for ane-Visaonline on theMinistry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperationwebsite, through a service provided by a private Cambodian company (CINet). This is a normalTourist Visabut costs USD 36 (including the credit card processing fee, as of February 2018) instead of the normal USD30. The visa arrives as a PDF file by e-mail within 3 business days. The application requires a digital photograph of yourself (in .jpg or .png format). You can scan your passport photo or have a passport sized photograph taken with a digital camera. There are other websites pretending to make a Cambodian e-visa – at best, these are just online travel agencies which will charge you more (USD30-45) and get the same USD40 visa for you; at worst, you may end up with a fake e-visa.
You need to printtwocopies (one for entry and one for exit) of the PDF visa, cut out the visa parts and keep them with your passport.
Visas in advance (either online or from an embassy/consulate) save time at the border but are more expensive. However, you do get to skip the queues of people applying for the visas arrival, although sometimes you may simply spend the saved time waiting at the airport luggage belt for your suitcase.
E-Visas are only valid for entry by air or at the three border main land crossings: Bavet (on theHo Chi Minh CityPhnom Penhroad);Koh Kong(nearTratinEastern Thailand); andPoipet(on theBangkokSiem Reaproad). You mayexitthe country with an e-visa viaanyborder crossing, howeverread here. Given the general reduction in visa scams at the major land borders, paying the extra USD5 to guarantee the price may (more likely if entering from Thailand) or may not be worth it. Getting a tourist visa on arrival for USD30 is more likely than being overcharged. Plus it keeps the option open of the enjoyablePhnom PenhChau Docboat trip (and the use of other minor border crossings)!
Using a e-visa saves you a whole page in your passport.
Overstayingin Cambodia is dodgy. If you make it to Immigration and are fewer than 10 days over, youll probably be allowed out with a fine of KHR50,000 (USD12.50) per day. However, if, for any reason, youre caught overstaying by the police, youll be carted off to the notoriously unpleasant illegal immigrant holding pens and may be blacklisted from Cambodia entirely. For most people its not worth the risk: get a legal extension or do a visa run to the nearest border instead.
While it is technically possible to extend your visa by going to the immigration authority next to Pochentong airport, it is highly recommended that you use the services of one of the numerous agents that offer this. The commission they charge is likely to be lower than the cost of taking a tuk-tuk to immigration and back, and, in addition, you are likely to save many hours, since these agents have the process streamlined. Nearly all guest houses will handle a visa extension for you, and you will receive your passport back in a couple of days.
Update May 2019: its no longer cheaper to use agents, who charge 49usd minimum. Take bus number 3 from central market for 45 cents to the airport. Official extension is 30 USD, receipt given, 3 days processing (agents take two weeks).
If you dont like dealing with shady looking small time agents you can use the long stretch between Wat Phnom and Independence Monument to look for a decent looking company. Again the prices are streamlined so everyones offer should be almost the same.
Cambodia has international airports atPhnom PenhandSiem Reap.
Direct flights connectPhnom Penh International Airport(previously Pochentong International Airport) withmainland ChinaBeijingGuangzhouShanghai),Hong KongLaosVientiane),MalaysiaKuala Lumpur),SingaporeSouth KoreaIncheon),TaiwanTaipei),ThailandBangkok) andVietnamHo Chi Minh City).
Direct flights connectSiem Reap – Angkor International Airportwithmainland ChinaBeijingGuangzhouShanghai),LaosPakseVientiane),MalaysiaKuala Lumpur),SingaporeSouth KoreaIncheonBusan),ThailandBangkok),QatarDoha) andVietnamHanoiHo Chi Minh City).
Travellers specifically going to visit theAngkortemple ruins may prefer to useSiem Reapas its only a few minutes away from the main sites.
Low-cost carrierAir Asiahas flights fromKuala LumpurtoPhnom PenhSiem Reap, andSihanoukville, and fromBangkoktoSiem ReapandPhnom Penh, and fromPhuketto Siem Reap.Jetstar Asiahas begun flying fromSingaporetoSiem ReapandPhnom Penh.
Other airlines operating flights to/from Cambodia include Asiana Airlines, Bangkok Airways, China Southern Airlines, Dragonair, Eva Airways, Korean Air, Lao Airlines, Malaysia Airlines (MAS), Qatar Airways, Shanghai Airlines, Siem Reap Airways(a subsidiary of Bangkok Airways), SilkAir, Singapore Airlines, Thai Airways International, Vietnam Airlines, and Cebu Pacific Airlines.
Beware of scams when entering Cambodia overland. Most common is the inflation of the visa fee from the official fee, currently US$30, charged by Cambodian custom officers, but it is easy to deal with. In Poipet, which is a visa-free zone, you can always change your Thai Baht into US dollars with cigarette vendors or restaurants. Insist on paying your visa with US dollars. When dealing with immigration officers, standing firm and continuing to smile will take you a long way. You can also point to the big sign with the price of the visa above the counter and insist on paying only $30 (while smiling, of course). If you dont have an ID photo for the visa application, dont let them charge you more than 2 dollars – often they ask for 100 Baht. Do not pay the much higher fee in Baht for a visa. Anyone offering an emergency visa (by tuk-tuk, Bus or agent) is ripping you off. The people here send someone to the border to do it for you and you could be waiting for an hour while it would take you 5 minutes at the border.
Ignore anyone who asks you or wants to help you at the border. You will just end up paying more and be jerked around. The only person who should be looking at your passport is an immigration official. When going through the Cambodian-side border, the immigration official may ask you if you want VIP service for an extra 200 Baht, promising that you do not have to wait in the queue.
You can also get your visa in advance – either from a Cambodian embassy/consulate (via an agency if necessary) or from the e-Visa website. See theVisassection for full details.
Past scams have included visitors being incorrectly told they need visas from a consulate at inflated prices before going to the border, fines for not presenting a vaccination certification even though a vaccination certificate is only mandatory if youre coming directly from Africa, charging 50 baht for a bogus SARS health form, and enforcing inflated exchange rates.
Scams1.Visa scam paying more for what the visa is worth. 2.Bus scam they wait until the bus is full and keep you waiting for hours on end. I met people from Bangkok to Siem Reap who left at 7.30 am and got there at 10 pm at night. 3.Food scamWell most International airports are expensive but this is not an International airport. They will take you to expensive restaurants and will keep you there for an hour until you feel hungry and want to eat something. I have been to places where a snickers bar was 2 Dollars (60 Baht). In a 7-11 in Bangkok they are 20 Baht. How does it figure that they cost 3 times the price in Cambodia? I have heard in Vietnam some places sold them for 6 dollars. Take food and water with you, just in case. Bottled water and bread rolls and sandwiches or something of that nature. 4.Dropping you off scamThey drop you 4 miles from the city center and then get kickbacks from tuk tuk drivers to take you the rest of the way. (You have to pay them extra, of course). Often if you just wait on the bus for a few minutes the bus will continue its journey into the city center. If the driver insists you disembark outside of the city (Roads closed for the holiday) you can save money on your fare onwards by ignoring the drivers clamoring for your attention and flag someone down on the main road. Youll most likely be able to negotiate a price that is halved or a third of what the others were asking.If you have paid bottom dollarthen expect to be jerked around. This is how they make their money, so try to get a fair price on a bus on minivan. Both buses and minivans usually travel at break-neck speed to make up for lost time and accidents are common. Because theyre bigger and slower, buses are considered to be the safer option.
Note, in the list of borders below, the Cambodian town comes second. For example,Aranyaprathetis in Thailand andPoipetis in Cambodia.
All six border crossings withThailandare open from 07:00 to 20:00 and each offer Cambodian visas on arrival. All of the crossings are served by paved roads in both countries, except the Cambodian side of the Daun Lem crossing, which is being paved as of March 2012.
Thai buses run tobut not acrosseach of the crossings: even Chong Sa-Ngam, the last to achieve Thai connections has now gained minibuses that bring gamblers to the new casino inChoam.
In Cambodia, four of the six border towns (PoipetKoh Kong, Daun Lem andOSmach) are directly served by buses.PailinAnlong VengandSamraong(each less than 20 km from a border) are each served by buses; motorbikes and shared taxis connect each of the towns with their respective border crossings.
Cambodiasbusiest land crossingis atAranyaprathetPoipeton theBangkokSiem Reaproad inNorth-western Cambodia. Long the stuff of nightmares, the roads are now paved all the way fromPoipettoSiem ReapBattambangandPhnom Penh.
Coastal Cambodiaand the southern part of theCardamom and Elephant Mountainsregion is served by theHat LekKoh Kongborder. The road goes all the way toSihanoukville. FromTratin Thailand, there a minibuses to the border. In Cambodia, minibuses or taxis connect the border toSihanoukvilleandPhnom Penh. TheKoh KongSihanoukvilleboat service no longer runs.
The formerKhmer Rougestronghold ofAnlong Vengis close to the Chong Sa-Ngam (inSi Saket Province)/Choamborder.
Improving roads inNorth-western Cambodiaare makingSamraongemerge as a transport hub. It is close to the Chong Jom (inSurin Province)/OSmachborder and well linked withSiem Reap.
Eastern Thailandis connected toBattambangandSiem Reapby the Ban Pakard (inChanthaburi Province)/Phra Prom(nearPailin) crossing, which offers a less stressful and more scenic alternitive to the more northly major crossing atPoipet.
Thegeographically closest crossing toBattambangis that at Ban Leam (inChanthaburi Province)/Daun Lem.Paramount Angkorrun buses toBattambangthough as of March 2012 the road on the Cambodian side is not yet fully paved.
Several Ho Chi Minh to Phnom Penh bus operators, notably Kumho Samco and now Mekong Express, scam foreign tourists by charging an extra US$5 for the Cambodian visa on arrival. Not agreeing to the extra charge and attempting to obtain the visa independently MAY result in being stranded at the border without your belongings. (For Mekong express passengers this is not a disaster. See the update below.) Mekong Express and MaiLinh bus companies are the most reliable and reputable businesses operating on this route. The visa surcharge situation can be a little hard to manage, as on all buses the conductor will collect passports before getting to the border and hand them in bundles to the immigration desk on the Vietnam side. UPDATE: May 2014, Sapaco Tourist also engages in this scam, and even when challenged with proof that the official price is only $30 still demanded $35, claiming the additional $5 is needed for the Cambodian police. UPDATE: As of March 2015, Mekong Express also charges this extra $5 for express visa service and for the police. However, when I politely but firmly pointed out that there is no such thing as an express visa service, the woman on the Mekong bus gave back my passport and said you can make it yourself. The office that sells the visas is in a small booth next to where the buses stop, and by also handing over a passport photo it took two minutes to get the visa for $30. You then go into the large building for immigration and customs processing. If you find that the Mekong service threatens to leave without you, dont worry too much as the Mekong buses all stop for a 30-40 minute meal break about 900 metres further down the road, at a roadhouse on the left-hand side of the road as you come from the border.
UPDATE OCTOBER 2019: Giant Ibis – the most expensive and reputable bus company running buses from HCMC to Phnom Pehn is now running this scam as well. $35 for a visa instead of $30 or you can sort it out yourself at the border. Apparently the $5 is for police which is obviously a load of rubbish. When I showed him this wikitravels page show he was scamming us he laughed and said Yes I know, but you still pay.
Vietnamese visas must be obtained in advance from an embassy or consulate. This can be arranged easily in Cambodia.
Themain crossingis the Moc Bai/Bavet crossing on theHo Chi Minh CityPhnom Penhroad. Buses between the two cities cost US$8-12 and take around 6 hrs. Passengers vacate the vehicle at both countries checkpoints. Only one passport